Development Process of Kampong Batik Kauman, Solo City

Kampong is …

  • Traditional settlement which exist in both urban and rural areas
  • Sub standart settlement
  • Sub standart life style
  • Rural type settlement

Local Initiative and development process …

  • Reanimating the effort batik in that area.
  • Reanimating Kauman as a moslem village.
  • Developing Kauman as a tourism village

Non Physical development:

  • Improving people awareness about the potency of their area
  • Promotion to global society through mass media, and participation to seminar/exhibition /discussion.

Physical development:

Making Detail Engineering Design of settlement utility and heritage walk (Marga Lestari) executed in handling of physical phase-1 Kauman

RESULT

Non Physical:

  • Batik regular monthly bulletin
  • Batik community already has a legal entity
  • Make business loans with savings and loans
  • Natural coloring training guide (environmental friendly colouring)
  • Local national tv coverage for promotional activities

Physical:

  • Opening of batik museum
  • The opening of new batik show room 8 -7o
  • Make a simple park for open space
  • Street furniture: Green canopy, Council names street, benches, street lights, information board and map 

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References:

  1. UNDIP Rural Development Summer School team in Malaysia, 2011
  2. Kauman Community

 

 

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City of Light, Kota Wisata Paling Populer di Dunia (Paris, Perancis)

Perancis merupakan negara yang sangat populer dengan kekayaan tradisi dan pariwisatanya. Negara ini merupakan salah satu negara maju dengan jumlah penduduk sebesar 61 juta jiwa. Perancis sering disebut juga dengan l’hexagon karena bentuknya yang heksagonal. Sekarang ini bentuk negara Perancis adalah republik yang dipimpin oleh seorang presiden, walaupun dalam sejarahnya Perancis merupakan negara monarki yang kuat. Perancis beribukotakan sebuah kota yang dikenal sebagai salah satu tujuan wisata paling diinginkan di dunia. Tidak kurang dari 30 juta orang berkunjung ke kota ini setiap tahunnya.

Paris yang dikenal dengan julukan city of light adalah kota dengan jumlah penduduk lebih dari dua juta jiwa. Kota ini berkembang dari pinggiran sungai seine. Wilayah administrasi Kota Paris dibagi atas dua puluh bagian yang dibagi melingkar seperti ular, dengan wilayah bagian kota satu berada tepat di pusat kota. Paris sendiri apabila dilihat dari atas maka akan terbagi menjadi dua bagian besar yang disebut dengan à gauche yaitu bagian kiri dan à droit yang berarti kanan yang terbelah oleh aliran Sungai Seine. Keberadaan sungai ini amat dipertahankan oleh pemerintah setempat sebagai salah satu Landmark kota selain tour eiffel, museum Lovre, Arc de Triomphe, dan masih banyak lainnya.

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Paris memiliki sejarah yang cukup panjang, berbagai peristiwa pernah merubah kota ini. Paris pada masa penguasaan kerajaan merupakan pusat aktivitas pemerintahan. Pada awal perkembangannya kota ini berkembang ke arah kanan Sungai Seine, yang kemudian dikembangkan di kedua sisi sungai pada tahun 1190 dengan Louvre sebagai benteng barat. Kawasan kanan diperuntukkan bagi pusat perdagangan dan jasa yang berpusat di Les Halles, sedangkan sisi kiri merupakan kawasan yang diperuntukkan sebagai kawasan pendidikan dengan universitas pertama yaitu Sorbonne yang sekarang telah menjadi pilihan banyak pelajar untuk melanjutkan studinya.

Revolusi industri yang melanda sebagian besar kota-kota di Eropa juga membawa perubahan besar pada Kota Paris. Keadaan ini membawa urbanisasi besar-besaran menuju ke kota ini, dimana peristiwa ini membuat Paris mengalami perluasan wilayah untuk menampung lonjakan penduduk. Perkembangan yang semakin pesat ini membuat Paris harus merombak berbagai infrastruktur demi pemenuhan kebutuhan penduduknya, antara lain pelebaran jalan serta pembangunan berbagai fasilitas publik. Pada tahun 1900 jaringan transportasi kereta pertama diresmikan dengan nama Métro yang terus berkembang hingga sekarang.

Kini Paris telah berkembang menjadi kota metropolitan dengan luas 86,9 km2. Kota ini memiliki jumlah bangunan bersejarah yang amat terjaga hingga sekarang. Bangunan-bangunan bersejarah abad pertengahan mudah ditemukan di Paris. Salah satu faktor penting dalam perawatan gedung-gedung bersejarah ini adalah kebijakan yang dikeluarkan oleh pemerintah setempat. Pengguna bangunan dapat merubah bagian dalam bangunan menjadi interior modern, namun tidak boleh merubah bentuk bangunan asalnya. Kota ini merupakan representasi kota dengan sejarah dan modernitas yang berdampingan. Lebih lanjut kota ini merupakan museum besar yang menceritakan sejarah melalui arsitekturnya. Oleh karena itu, Kota Paris sering disebut dengan kota pusat seni dan intelektual.

Kota Paris terbagi atas 20 bagian kawasan yang hampir mirip dengan sistem kecamatan dan kelurahan di Indonesia. Setiap kawasan ini memiliki satu pusat pemerintahan yang bertanggung jawab pada perkembangan kawasan tersebut. Dan secara lebih luas Paris merupakan zona pertama dari enam zona yang terdapat di Ile-de France. Kota yang populer dengan menara Eiffel ini dilengkapi dengan berbagai infrastruktur dan fasiitas yang membuat nyaman masyarakat serta wisatawan yang datang. Salah satunya adalah keberadaan jaringan transportasi yang matang dan menjangkau seluruh kawasan di Paris. Jaringan transportasi ini merupakan salah satu yang paling tua di dunia bersama dengan Kota San Fransisco di Amerika Serikat. Dengan keberadaannya baik masyarakat Paris maupun wisatawan tidak akan kesulitan untuk menuju tempat tujuan.

Urbanization VS Food Security

Surakarta City is a cultural city located in Central Java Province, Indonesia. Solo City is a city with a mixture of heritage, tourism and commercial activities. These days this city is famous among urban studies practitioners with its green planning and development. Tourism and commercial activities in Solo have attracted not only foreign and domestic investments but also migrants. Migrants have pushed the development toward peri-urban area and, once again, availability of land and houses become the main reason.

Peri-urban area of Solo City consists of some districts, i.e. Sukoharjo District, Sragen District, Karanganyar District, and Boyolali District. Colomadu Sub district is one of Solo peri-urban which is located in the northern part of Solo City. In term of land use characteristic, formerly this area is dominated by agriculture land that produces rice, corn and sugar cane, but currently the number of agriculture land decrease continuously. It occurs due to the development of residential estate and settlement. The number has been decreasing continuously. Today, there is only 519.9 ha farm land left compare while 895.9 ha for residential uses and the number keep increasing. Strategic location, supported by good infrastructure and accessibility, has a crucial effect on the transformation of this sub district. As the main access to the Adisumarmo International Airport, Colomadu appeared as a gold land for many developers and investors. High movement from and toward Adi Sumarmo airport has not only triggered tremendous development of residential and settlement but also commercial activities alongside Adisucipto and Adi Sumarmo Street. It will be even greater when the development of Semarang – Solo and Solo – Kertosono toll road are finish and start to be occupied. In the development planning of the highway, the entrance and exit gate will be located in this sub district specifically in Klodran and Ngasem Village. Colomadu is going to be developed into a big interchange area of Joglo Semar and East Java Province movement. It can be assumed that in the future Colomadu probably is going to be develop as a new core city like Kartasura and Solo Baru though today it more looks like a dormitory city. It is because Colomadu is mostly used as residential area instead of economic activites with residential area rather than other economic activities. However, commercial and services activities have been growing rapidly.

In this essay i would like to discuss about how urbanization has been exploited our farmland in Colomadu. Planning document has been set aside as the need of houses become bigger. As an inhabitant of a particular city we should participated on our preserved our farmland by respect on the development planning and regulation.

Land Conversion Treaten Food Security

Colomadu Sub district is not the only one and the most developed peri-urban area of Solo City. Solo Baru and Kartasura, which are part of Sukoharjo District, are two most urbanized area around Solo City. Both of them are highly developed compared to Colomadu. Solo Baru and Kartasura are dominated by commercial activities but Colomadu development dominated by residential area. Based on the sub district planning document (RDTR 2013), Colomadu is planned to be a residential sub district. On the other hand, the development in Colomadu is still carried on although RDTR planning document stated that 520 Ha farm land in this sub district are categorized as preserved land (LP2B). How is it possible a preserved land planned to be residential development area?

The invasion of residential estate by private developer had been causing not only environmental and land use transformation but also social economic transformation. The number of farmer keeps decreasing day by day. The questionnaire data result shows that there is 80% economic transformation from farm to nonfarm activities with only 3% farmer left from total number of respondents in Colomadu. Farmers tends to shift to urban activities like industrial labor, construction worker, and trader rather than manage their farm land. Farmers, face many difficulties in managing their farm land today as the result of residential and commercial development. One of the farmers in Gawanan Village said that the water is getting difficult to be found because the garbage blocks the drainage. As the nearest urbanize area, Solo City seems to have the biggest role in Colomadu transformation and development. Here is the evidence of land use transformation in Colomadu Sub-district.

COLOMADU SUBDISTRICT LAND USE DATA

Land Use 1990 2003 2006 2011 2013
Wet Land 840.3 716.6 547.6 520 486.6
Built-up 583.3 767.6 865.9 895.9 931.3
Farm 81.9 60.6 67.8 65.4 65.4
Savana 0.32 0 0 0 0
Pond 2.9 2.5 2.7 2.7 2.7
Forestry 0 0 0 0 0
Plantation 4.7 4.6 0 0 0
Others 50.6 82 80.2 86.8 80.2

Sources: BPS OF KARANGANYAR DISTRICT,1990, 2003, 2006, 2011, AND 2013

Compared to the 1990’s, the land characteristics and uses in the 2000’s have been transforming as the result of urbanization and exploitation of settlement. The domination has completely shifted from wet land to built-up area. Today, the land has urban characteristic rather than rural. The plantation use has completely gone just like savanna in 2003’s data. Then, when it is compared to Karanganyar land use data, the statistic shows the real tendency of development compared to other sub-districts. As one of two sub-districts having more built-up use than farm land, Colomadu is quite dense. It was the densest sub-district in Karangayar as proven by population number statistical data in 2012.

Today, the government of Karanganyar District has been managing the development of houses and settlement by giving new law about permitted developers. Only big developers with 40 and more houses project are permitted to build new settlements. Although this law has been set by the government, small developer still can be easily found in Colomadu. This fact makes the development seems to be uncontrollable. Karanganyar local government has been trying to prevent the transformation to be going too fast and decided to create a limitation by setting the minimum unit of houses for private developer. However, recently, based on interview the law has been changed and the government allows small medium developers to build new settlements. Thus, now petty developers can built a new residential estate with only five units of houses. This new construction of planning law will be supported the exploitation of farm land more and more which already reach Colomadu since 1990.

2001 BARU

2014 BARU

Sources: Kusumaningrum, 2014

LAND USE MAP OF COLOMADU 2001 AND 2014

The time series maps above show the transformation of land use in Colomadu Sub-district. The most obvious one to be identified in those maps are the decrease of farm land and the increasing number of built-up areas. The built-up areas are mostly used as settlement, followed by commercial use and industry. The first series of maps shows the land use transformation from farm to built-up in 2001. In this map, the green color seems to be dominating the land use of Colomadu while followed by the yellow one. In 2013 map some areas have been developed into residential estate areas as represented by orange color.

So how is it influencing the food security?

The faster the development, the agriculture land become lessen. The food production become smaller and smaller. So who’s fault is it? Government? Farmer? People? Urbanization? All of us have to be aware even when we drops one sigle grain of rice one hectar lands being exploited. Each second development has eaten our food. Sustainable planning has to be manage so that our agriculture land could be preserved. We as the future generation have to realized how uncontrolable development could create big issues for our child and grandchild.

Solution

What can we do now? As a young urban planner i believe that my city has a big plan and regulation about land and development. But many great plan was set aside by uncontrollable illegal development which is not based on the planning made by the government. So, what we have to do now is just simple, let support our government in maintaining our farm land by their plan. Erase all corruption and let’s all of us follow all the regulation. It is simple but difficult as hell because of population boom and economic development these days. Because population need house, house need lands.

In Ag-Summit i would like to give understanding that it is not as simple as just a small family issues about hunger, but it is a responsibility of a whole city not only the government but also the inhabitant. I hope with this discussion a lot of people will take a bigger attention to the farmland and food.

Sources

  • Kusumaningrum, Ratna. 2014. Land Use and Social Transformation in Colomadu Sub-district. Diponegoro University Thesis: Semarang.
  • Statistical Central Bureau of Indonesia. 1990, 2003, 2006, 2011, and 201.3

PUBLIC SPACE FOR EVERYONE

Kevin Lynch (1960) said that the physical spaces of the city created an image and characteristic of the city itself, this physical characteristic could divide into five category that consist of path, edge, nodes, district, and landmark.

A district could create a social space function, social space in a certain city usually seen as an open space like garden that could gives activity spaces for citizen. The activities could be many things that related to human interaction. But social spaces for urban people is not always in the form of garden, it could be another function such as commercial, religious activity, education, and many more. A city with many characteristics formed a lifestyle and its citizen personalities. So that, a city has to be creates well in contribution of better lifestyle changes (Wirth, 1938).

Public space is an area that gives interaction places. Street, garden, plaza, and open space could give shapes in community lifestyle (Carr, 1992). Providing this kind of spaces in the peoples social live will bring satisfaction and happiness.

Sources:

Urbanism as a way of life, Wirth (1938). The American Journal of Sociology, Vol.44, No 1, (JUL. 1938), pp 1-24

The Image of The City, Kevin Lynch (1960)

Carr, Stephen.1992. Public Space. Cambridge University Press : United States of America.

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SUWON ECOMOBILITY VILLAGE: Let’s start to change!

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Suwon ecomobolity village are great innovation to introduce ecomobillity towards people. The street is walk able and comfortable with many restaurant and cafe around. Although it seems to be lack of greeneries, the weather is quite hot in the summer and greeneries will help this condition.  By new walk able street people in Haenggung dong village are encourage to leave their cars behind and start to ecomobile and enjoying the live and feel of their own village.

Suwon Mayor is working hard in this project, much demonstration happened during the construction stage. People objection are so high, some restaurant and cafe owner are protested and old people feel uncomfortable with noise and dust from the construction. A grandfather died because asthma while the construction held, in fact the families blamed construction dust as the main problem. Demonstration happened saying that “ecomobility had killed someone” it must be stopped!

Now in Haenggung dong many people started to believe and feel comfortable with the less cars condition. But the mayor has to step back a bit to fulfill the people ultimatum to let the car move in again a week after the opening day.  Although some challenge still remains unsolved the mayor has doing the best he can do to give an example and impulse to the ecomobility development.  The commitment towards ecomobilty encourages Suwon City to give bigger incentives to the people so that the ecomobility message could be heard. Did it already hear? No not yet, a bigger effort is still needed to reach sustainability. And for almost 30 years ecomobility being develop Indonesia, Philippines, and some others developing countries are still wondering when? How? And who? Would do the first step towards ecomobility. We have leave those question behind and started to planned and change it immediately if we would like to secure the future generation condition.

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