Baan Mankong Part 2 : Participation Model as the Best Solution on Low-Income Settlement Issues Case Study : KIP (Indonesia) and Baan Mankong (Thailand)

Participation now is one of the favorite planning approaches in the world. The emerging of bottom up planning is one of the basic concepts that encourage participation method. Bottom up planning was a respond to the unsuitable of top down planning in some urban and rural problems. The inappropriate solution to resolve a problem in an area was caused by lack of understanding and identification to the problem roots. Lack of communication usually is the main problem when it comes to miss understanding and identification. So that’s why participation of the local community is important to understand which the main reason that caused some problems is.
In here community participation is not always mean that community have to involve 100% in the development but community as the main sources and information. The involvement and participation level always depends on the cases and problems. The level of participation usually becomes one of the key successes of some development program especially that related with poverty issues. Poverty mostly happened because there is inequality in some aspects. Inequality in individual is related to income and inequality in development such as infrastructure and facilities (Sugiri, 2012). Both of the inequality types affected on poor people lives. This inequality leads to the declining of trust to the government and its development program. Lack of trust is one of the participation problems in participation concept implementation of Indonesia.
Participation method always is the friendliest method for some problems related to the low income people and inequality. In the urban area this inequality problem has a strong relation with the informal settlement problem or slums and squatters. And slum and squatters could leads to other problems such as criminality, urban aesthetic, and many more because problems are always related one another. So before the problems could create other bigger problems it would be better if this informal settlement could be resolved immediately. Urban informal settlement included on the millennium development goals and targets that stated in the year 2000 that focused on the poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental degradation and discrimination against women and for improving the lives of slum dwellers (UN-HABITAT, 2003). So now many countries in the world put more effort on resolving and alleviating this poverty and settlement problems.

Community participation proved as the perfect way on alleviating poverty problem. Long time before the millennium development goals and targets stated in 2000 Indonesia already have an effort to facing the poverty and informal settlements problems and one of the most popular programs in Indonesia is KIP or what we know as Kampung Improvement Program. This program use participation as its basic approaches to the poor community in the urban area that usually lived in unhealthy and unplanned settlement location which usually called Kampung in Bahasa. Many cities in the world try to adapt this concept as one of the urban slums solution, the most famous KIP adaptations programs is Baan Mankong in Thailand. Both program in Indonesia and Thailand are could significantly reducing the housing problem in Surabaya City and Bangkok, and it’s all because of there are a good a communication and coordination between the entire stakeholder that involved including the community.

KIP (Kampung Improvement Program) in Indonesia firstly applied in Jakarta and Surabaya City in the era of President Soeharto in 1968. There are two objectives of the program, the first one is to provide the urban housing for the poor people so the poverty problem could be resolve as well. The second objective focused on the improvement of the coordination between stakeholders inside the KIP’s program. Physical improvement, economic and social development is three main aspects on the process of achieving the program objectives, and all of those aspects could be found in the three stages of development in KIP.

Physical improvement is the first initial step to do before social and economic improvement, physical improvement here including housing improvement, road and pathway improvement, drainage, health post and many more. The second step required a small-scale credit system for the community to develop the community economic live. The third stage use training and workshop as the tools for social development. The whole process of the development hopefully could create more sustainable neighborhood in all aspects and participatory still be the basic idea in the process of the development.

The participatory concept could easily found in every process of development in KIP. Finding and creating community development committee is the priority in the early stage of the program. The committee consists of the entire trusted people in the community that usually stands as the chairman of RT and RW. This mechanism makes people willingness to participate on the program increase because there are trusted people that will deliver their aspirations and watch the development process. This is a brilliant idea on alleviating the people trust on the government and other institutions especially because of most of them are poor people that have low education level.

The community has their own priority on the problem and development so that they get full authority to handle the planning, implementation, and monitoring by themselves with the guidance from the other involving institutions. This process significantly increasing the suitability level of the development related with environmental and social economic condition because the program have already maintain the participation from the identification and observation stages. The observation process called as community self-surveys, here the community try to find the problem and opportunity of their neighborhood. The basic information that their gained including the housing condition, availability and service quality, availability and infrastructure quality, community status, and another aspect that relevant such as participation, stakeholders, and many more.

Besides increasing the suitability level of the development, community self-surveys also affected on the growth of the sense of belonging not only between the community and its neighborhood and environment but also inter community. This kind of feeling will increasing the sustainability level of the development because peoples will keep what their loved, it is the basic feel of humanity. This method was a very precise method for Indonesia condition so that’s why Indonesian people especially low income people always looking for a heartwarming leader that they can trust.

Baan mankong cases in Thailand which is adapted KIP for their slum upgrading program used the same participation method. Indonesia and Thailand has the same problem with the urban housing for low income people. Thailand capital city, Bangkok, has many canals inside the city and a big river called Chao Praya River. In the past days the lands near the canals used by the Bangkok inhabitants to do farming activities, but it’s already long time ago and in the recent years many of the canals sides now occupied by Bangkok inhabitants for informal settlements. Lands besides the canals in some cities usually placed as a green belt open space, but because of the development and migration that happened, Bangkok become lack of undeveloped lands inside the city so that’s why many people started to expand the lands to become urban settlements.

The growth of the informal settlement in Bangkok is very high and the government realizes it. Baan mankong is the program that responds to the rapid growth of slums, this program first emerges in the year 2003. Baan mankong targeted one million secured housing for poor peoples in five years, but developed not only physical infrastructure but also developed the human social and economic activities. The goals and objectives of the program are similar to the Kampung Improvement Program, but the implementation of the program is different because of the different culture and environment condition.

Baan mankong program has many different ways to resolve slums problem especially in Bangkok city. The concept of every community groups are different it’s all depend on the community decision towards their settlement. There are on-site upgrading, public housing, land readjustment, and site and services. On-site upgrading was a concept that focusing on the improvement of the infrastructures and facilities and also in the readjustment of the settlement to get more healthy and neat in the same area. Public housing is an idea of giving a new settlement and environment to the community but still considering the distance to the community working area. Usually public housing here is in the form of vertical housing that need less lands but still can occupied many peoples. Land readjustment is trying to accommodate the slums to be more healthy and neat but not in the same spots of the old settlement, but the new settlement spot did not far from the old ones. And the last one is site and services, this method is similar to the on-site method because the community does not have to move from the original area and government and other institutions accompanying the community in the improvement and development process.

The concept choices of the slum upgrading 100% depends on the community decisions but still get some advices from the government and other institutions especially from the expert and academician side. For example is the Bang Bua community in the north of Bangkok choosing on-site upgrading as the solution of their settlement problem. Bang Bua basically was the name of one from many canals in Bangkok, and because of this community lives besides the canal that’s why it’s called as Bang Bua community. Although the settlement location is much closed to the canal and will dangerously affecting the community in rainy days because of flood but the community insists to do their settlement upgrading in the original area because of the distance reason.
Bang Bua joined Baan mankong program in the 2003 because some reasons, such as bad environmental, high level of crime (drugs seller), flood problems, poor sanitation, poor access, low sense of belonging, and aesthetic problem. Crime is the biggest reasons why the Bang Bua community wants to join the program. The awareness to the next generation is the most important think they realize, the community barely think that their way of life is bad for the children growth. Unstable economic and unhealthy environment makes some people wants some changes. So since 2003 Bang Bua started their first step on developing and improving their settlement. Most of the people who lived in Bang bua were a migrant from the north east of Thailand.

The initial step done by the Thailand government is a continuous meeting with the community. Because there are no RT and RW like in Indonesia, the government tries to makes a small election in the community to find the trusted person to lead the development inside the settlement. The community involve in the process of planning and decision making to their environment development. The planning process in Bang bua was accompanied by the expert from Sripathum University of Thailand. In Bang bua the settlement being readjusts to make a more neat settlement. After getting the permission from every house owner in Bang bua the housing scheme planning started to do.

Sources: Fourth Group Planning Studio Analysis, 2010
The Development Process of Slum Upgrading in Bang Bua, Bangkok

The community does the master plan and the housing design by themselves, they coordinate and communicate in a monthly meeting. The community divided into 10 groups that consists of five to six households and then decided the loans and the houses distribution. It continued with another facility and basic infrastructure development to create a better settlement and environment. And to increasing their sense of belonging, they built the houses by themselves by the helped of all people in the community. In the end there are a social economic development that relies on the community home creative and another skills training.


Sources: Bang Bua Community Documentation, 2010
Community Participation and Envolvement

The participation model in Thailand is clearly developed, and almost all the decision making was in the hand of the community itself. The government and institutions stands as the facilitator, adviser, and provider. The community stands as a planner and controller of the development. Clear division on role and function makes this program runs more effective and efficient. Compare to the participation in Indonesia especially in the KIP program, although the participation ideas already deliver nicely but there are still some government intervention on the planning and implementation. There is also no clear roles division in the program implementation.

KIP in the past years was a big success that recognized by many countries around the world, they also try to adopt this concept to resolve their settlement problem in their cities. But in the recent condition, with still high number of informal settlements in Indonesia KIP is difficult to once again apply. The decreasing of people trust to the government and also overlapping roles and institutions function was some obstacles on applying KIP in this era. Now government tends to choose eviction as their solution to the informal settlement problems. It does not resolve problem but creating more problems. By eviction people will difficult to develop their lives makes the economic condition even worse, it also increasing the unemployment level.

Government has to be wiser on controlling and resolving many problems especially related to the poverty alleviation and urban settlement improvement. Participation model still be one of the best choices on facilitated those problems. But it has to be supported institutionally and financially. Indonesian government has to restructures its roles and function so that there are no more tackles from institutional aspects. So that government and other institutions could gain more trust and willingness of the target people and community.

Bang Bua Community Presentation. 2010. Bangkok.
CODI presentation. 2010. Community Organization Development Institute: Bangkok.
Dhakal, Sobhakar. 2002. Comprehensive Kampung Improvement Program in Surabaya as a Model of Community Participation. Urban Enviromental Management Project: Kitakyushu.
Planning Studio Product. 2010. Diponegoro University: Semarang.
Sheng, Yap Kioe. 2011. Urban Challenges in South-East Asia. Asia Pasific Urban Forum UN Economic and Social Commisions: Bangkok.
The Challenge of Slums Global Report on Human Settlements. 2003. UN-HABITAT.
The World’s First Slum Upgrading Program. 2006. UN-HABITAT: Vancouver.
Viratkapan, Vichai and Parera, Ranjith. 2004. Slum relocation projects in Bangkok: what has contributed to their success or failure?. Habitat International 30 (2006) 157–174.




Metro, Transportasi Favorit Masyarakat Kota Paris

Métro adalah salah satu transportasi publik yang banyak menjadi pilihan masyarakat termasuk wisatawan. Selain murah, transportasi yang berbentuk kereta bawah tanah ini mudah dipahami dan menjangkau hampir seluruh bagian Kota Paris. Banyaknya alat bantu berupa peta dan signase mempermudah dalam mencapai tujuan. Signase tersebut berupa papan penanda arah, papan penanda waktu kedatangan, pembatas jalur, dan lain sebagainya. Papan-papan penanda ini cukup membantu dalam mengarahkan penumpang, walaupun terdapat beberapa diantaranya yang sudah cukup tua dan rusak.

Métro memiliki empat belas jalur yang membentang di seluruh bagian Kota Paris. Jalur satu dan dua merupakan dua jalur tertua yang sudah ada sejak tahun 1900, sedangkan jalur termuda adalah jalur empat belas yang baru mulai dibuka pada tahun 1998. Jalur delapan merupakan jalur terpanjang dengan panjang mencapai 22.057 meter yang melintasi tidak kurang dari 36 stasiun. Jalur terpendek adalah jalur sebelas dengan panjang 6.286 meter, jalur tersebut merupakan yang terpendek diluar jalur penghubung yang biasanya ditandai dengan penambahan kata “bis”. Berikut penjelasan métro secara ringkas,

Sumber :
Jaringan Métro (Kereta Bawah Tanah) di Kota Paris

Keseluruh sistem métro tersebut telah dibangun bertahun-tahun dengan tujuan untuk memberikan transportasi publik yang mudah dan terjangkau. Secara total panjang jalur métro mencapai 201,8 kilometer dengan 300 stasiun dan 384 titik pemberhentian. Jalur sembilan bukan merupakan jalur métro terpanjang di Paris namun memiliki waktu tempuh terlama yaitu dua jam. Titik-titik pemberhentian yang cukup banyak memberikan pilihan dalam pencapaian tujuan. Namun dalam mencapai titik pemberhentian ini menjadi hal yang sulit bagi orang tua dan kaum disable. Kurangnya sarana yang membantu dua golongan ini mengakibatkan métro menjadi kurang terjangkau. Banyaknya tangga yang harus dilewati serta jauhnya jarak tempuh untuk melakukan korespondensi menjadi permasalahan utama. Untuk itu dibutuhkan peningkatan kualitas fisik kawasan.

some metro station has unique interior design

metro entrance visual

Selain kualitas fisik, dalam segi pelayanan publik banyak hal yang masih harus dilakukan perbaikan. Dalam menjalankan pelayanan sehari-hari RATP memiliki 3.500 pengemudi métro dan 200 polisi pengawas. Jumlah pengawas yang hanya mencapai 200 personil tidaklah sesuai dengan kondisi jumlah penumpang dan jumlah stasiun yang harus diawasi. Kurangnya pengawasan mengakibatkan rawan terjadinya kriminalitas baik di dalam métro maupun di stasiun-stasiun pemberhentian. Dibutuhkan penambahan personil untuk meningkatkan keamanan dan kenyamanan pengguna métro. Kamera pengawas masih kurang mampu memberikan keamanan bagi para penumpang. Selain kurangnya personil yang ada, ketidak disiplinan pengemudi métro menjadi isu tesendiri. Para pengemudi ini terkadang membiarkan kenalan ataupun keluarganya untuk ikut masuk di dalam kabin pengemudi yang seharusnya tidak diperbolehkan. Hal ini dapat mengakibatkan terjadinya kecelakaan ataupun ketidaksesuaian lainnya

metro inside

Jumlah penumpang métro setiap harinya mencapai lebih dari lima juta penumpang, setengah dari jumlah penumpang seluruh transportasi umum Kota Paris. Dilayani oleh 540 kereta kebutuhan lebih dari lima juta penumpang ini mampu dipenuhi. Jumlah total kereta yang dimiliki RATP sendiri adalah 900 kereta dengan 200 kereta menggunakan roda ban dan 700 lainnya menggunakan bahan besi. Dalam satu kereta setidaknya terdapat 3 sampai 6 gerbong dalam sekali perjalanan.

Sayangnya, kereta-kereta tersebut tidak semuanya dalam kondisi yang baik. Kondisi kereta pada jalur-jalur baru seperti jalur empat belas masih tergolong baik. Kereta yang banyak dinaiki wisatawan seperti métro satu juga diutamakan kenyamanannya, sedangkan kereta-kereta dengan jalur biasa, dalam hal ini bukan tempat yang popules, cenderung memiliki kondisi yang kurang menyenangkan. Kereta jalur empat dan lima yang banyak digunakan oleh para imigran memiliki kondisi terburuk. Dua jalur kereta ini banyak digunakan para imigran untuk menuju utara melalui Gare du Nord. Kondisi kereta yang penuh coretan serta lebih banyaknya goncangan ketika di dalam kereta cukup mengurangi kenyamanan dalam penggunaan.

Selain beberapa kondisi yang amat disayangkan di atas, dibutuhkan juga inovasi-inovasi baru dalam menjaga kenyamanan pengunjung wanita, orang tua dan anak-anak. Hal ini dikarenakan ketiga golongan inilah yang menjadi kurang nyaman ketika kereta sedang ramai. Terinjak, terhimpit, dan terjadinya pelecehan menjadi isu krusial. Pembentukan gerbong-gerbong khusus dapat menjadi solusi yang paling memungkinkan untuk menjaga agar ketiga hal tersebut dapat diminimalkan.



LATE POST: Youth Session of Suwon Ecomobility Festival, Get Inspired and Cares!

Youth session on Suwon Ecomobillity Festival was a great session that attends by Korean, Kenya, and Indonesian youth to share about the youth aspiration and point of view in Ecomobility. Held in Sunkyung Library in September 3rd 2013 at 17.30 until 20.00 inside the haenggung dong neighborhood area, this session gather more than 200 youth participant from many high schools in Korea. Social, environmental, cultural, and governmental issues are being discussed together by five youth panels that consists of Myung Seung-Yeon from Korea, Kang Jeong-hyun from Korea, Ratna Kusumanigrum from Indonesia, Rachel Machua from Kenya, and also Willice Onyango from IYC Kenya. Assist by four experts from some organizations such as Suwon transportation department director Mr Park Heung Su, UN-Habitat Asia Pasific regional advisor Dr. Kulwant Singh, ICLEA representative Mr Santosh Kadokula, and Mr Carlos Felipe Pardo as the executive director of Fundacion Despacio the discussion are held with high enthusiasm. The high curiosity of Korean youth is can be seen here in this session. Many smart and interesting questions were asked by them challenging the expert and other youth panel to explain more. One question that interesting is that what happened and what plans to do when ecomobility and sustainability are already reach in the future? From this question can be seen how the youth already think far ahead about cities and development.

The session was aiming to encourage young people to supported ecomobility in many ways because as a youth they are they could change the future faces. The youth have to be able to speak and expresses their passion and opinion in many ways. Youth declaration about ecomobility, its benefits, and also youth participation are reads by four youth Lendsey Lilian, Song Jin-Ju, Telly Obrein, and Jo Su-min from Kenya and Korea in the end of the session are written to encourage youth to take part on this huge movement and to create more understanding to them that without youngster contribution the marathon sticks cannot be continued in the future.

me and Korea youth

source: suwon ecomobility festival youth session committee
short discussion

source: suwon ecomobility festival youth session committee
youth declaration supporting ecomobility

source: suwon ecomobility festival youth session committee

source: suwon ecomobility festival youth session committee
take a picture with all participants

Which bike track do you choose?





















Kampong Belimbing: From Head Hunter Tribe to Friendly Community

Kampong Belimbing is a small village in the southern part of Kuching, Malaysia that occupied by Bidayuh ethnic group. It’s about 60 km from Kuching City. The total area of this village is 42.70 acres. The population approximately 400 people now, most of them are Muslim. Sometimes before this village was called gelimbing, now it had changed to belimbing. Gelimbing and belimbing have the same meaning. Village people said that sometimes ago there are many belimbing trees in this village. But now there is only one tree left located near the “barok” or village hall.

They had been living in a long house made from wood since 1954 after they leave their original houses in the mountain as the result of social issues and religion. The housing design is a mixture of Malay and Bidayuh culture. Before practicing Islam, this community believes in traditional practice called pagan, they collected their enemy skull to do their ritual. Then they hang it in the roof inside their houses. That was the reason behind the head hunter nickname. Although today they have left their cultural tradition which is contrary to Islamic doctrine, but they still manage to keep their traditional dance, music and games.



Kampong Belimbing Long House

Today they lived as a palm oil farmer under Malaysian Government Organization called FELCRA, and to improve their income the village agreed to join homestay program and tourism activities. With their motto “anak orang anak kita”, which means they consider everyone as their children, Kampong Belimbing transforms into a homestay village for everyone. They welcome people to stay and experience their harmonic live with nature. Tracking and hiking in the heavy rain forest to find the gorgeous Rafflesia Arnoldy flower is their main attraction. Besides they also bring us to the original houses of Bidayuh Ethnic group inside the mountain and also teach us their traditional dance, music and games. And last but not least their traditional food. The most important one we could learn harmony, respect, and a sense of belonging toward each other and nature. These norms were practiced to ensure the secure feeling inside the village and among the people.


qwqwqLearning traditional dance and games

P1050692Tracking in the forest to find rafflesia arnoldy

Trough homestay, they had managed to develop their economic activities and to preserve their tradition and culture. The economic development of Kampong Belimbing has brought modernization to this village. It can be seen from the usage of some modern tools such as a washing machine, TV, DVD, and some even have home theatre. Some of them have managed to buy a car as transportation to the nearest city. It means today the community has been able to live a good life with sufficient income. Furthermore, it’s not only improves their quality of life but also manage to preserve their tradition, culture, and environment.

Me and my homestay family

Kampong Belimbing Homestay: Jalan Padawan, 94700 Kuching, SK, Malaysia +60 82-863 796